The Origin of Wildfires and How They Are Caused.

By Steve Nix

Imagine, if there is no history.

What would be the world looks like?

What will be things looks like?

Giving importance to the history and going back to historical moments and keep looking and asking what was actually happened in a critical and analytical view.

I wasn’t an historian. I read in schooldays as a subject. That’s it. Over a year, I started understanding and knowing about the origin of anything. Not only the topics that I had written in my blogs so far. I would again say, which I said in my earlier blogs, if you know what was happened in the past, there would be a huge possibility that you can able to predict the future. You could able to get fine amount of experience through reading.

It takes time to know and gather about those stuffs, but it’s worthy.

Here, I’m gonna share the one of the informative article from a thoughtco website. I will paste the source link down below and I sincerely encourage you all to visit to read the full article.

About the writer:

Steve Nix

Forestry Expert

Education

B.S., Forest Resource Management, University of Georgia

Introduction

  • Worked for a forestry consulting company
  • Managed a county forestry and wildfire program
  • Wrote about forest resources as an analyst for the state of Alabama
  • Wrote U.S. Forest Service technical reports
  • Earned numerous certifications in forest resource management

Experience

Steve Nix is a former writer for ThoughtCo who contributed articles about forestry for more than 19 years. Steve researched, analyzed and wrote about forest resources in the southern United States during nearly 20 years as a forest resources analyst for the state of Alabama. His experience includes working with a private forestry consulting company and managing county forestry and wildfire program in Randolph County, Alabama.

Steve earned certificates in several forestry specialization areas, including Conservation Law Enforcement, Forest Wildlands Burning, and Forest Pesticide Application. Nix was also an Alabama Registered Forester and is a member of the Society of American Foresters. His ThoughtCo articles and data appear in numerous newspapers, natural resource magazines, and in U.S. Forest Service technical reports. 

Education

Steve Nix holds a bachelor’s degree in Forest Resource Management from the University of Georgia. 

ThoughtCo and Dotdash

ThoughtCo is a premier reference site focusing on expert-created education content. We are one of the top-10 information sites in the world as rated by comScore, a leading Internet measurement company. Every month, more than 13 million readers seek answers to their questions on ThoughtCo.

For more than 20 years, Dotdash brands have been helping people find answers, solve problems, and get inspired. We are one of the top-20 largest content publishers on the Internet according to comScore, and reach more than 30% of the U.S. population monthly. Our brands collectively have won more than 20 industry awards in the last year alone, and recently Dotdash was named Publisher of the Year by Digiday, a leading industry publication.

Most wildfires are started accidentally by humans.

It is interesting to note that, of the four billion years of earth’s existence, conditions were not conducive for spontaneous wildfire until the last 400 million years. A naturally-occurring atmospheric fire did not have the chemical elements available until major several earth changes occurred.

The earliest life forms emerged without needing oxygen (anaerobic organisms) to live about 3.5 billion years ago and lived in a carbon dioxide based atmosphere. Life forms that needed oxygen in small amounts (aerobic) came much later in the form of photosynthesizing blue-green algae and ultimately changed the earth’s atmospheric balance toward oxygen and away from carbon dioxide (co2).

Photosynthesis increasingly dominated earth’s biology by initially creating and continuously increasing the earth’s percentage of oxygen in the air. Green plant growth then exploded and aerobic respiration became the biologic catalyst for terrestrial life. Around 600 million years ago and during the Paleozoic, conditions for natural combustion started developing with increasing speed.

Wildfire Chemistry

Fire needs fuel, oxygen, and heat to ignite and spread. Wherever forests grow, the fuel for forest fires is provided mainly by continued biomass production along with the resulting fuel load of that vegetative growth. Oxygen is created in abundance by the photosynthesizing process of living green organisms so it is all around us in the air. All that is needed then is a source of heat to provide the exact chemistry combinations for a flame.

When these natural combustibles (in the form of wood, leaves, brush) reach 572º, gas in the steam given off reacts with oxygen to reach its flash point with a burst of flame. This flame then preheats surrounding fuels. In turn, other fuels heat up and the fire grows and spreads. If this spreading process is not controlled, you have a wildfire or uncontrolled forest fire.

Depending on the geographic condition of the site and the vegetative fuels present, you might call these brush fires, forest fires, sage field fires, grass fires, woods fires, peat fires, bush fires, wildland fires, or veld fires.

How Do Forest Fires Start?

How Does Wildland Fire Spread?

Source: https://www.thoughtco.com/the-causal-history-of-forest-fires-1342893

With respect.

11 Facts About Wildfires.

Why am I sharing this factual content?

The word fact is sounds far more than anything. But every individual views also impacting. The point is, along with the personal views and informative news about the wildfires. The reason I keep on writing about the wildfires is not to create propaganda or making this content trendy. So we, the 7.8 billion people has to know one of the catastrophic impacts in and around the globe. It would be better, if we, every one of us can start finding/creating a good and pragmatic solution.

Along with sharing informative and impactful contents, I personally gonna look forward with this issue and finally I gonna convey my personal few words.

Here we all need to know the 11 facts about the wildfires.

There are enormous facts available. But this one, dosomething.org is an incredible too.  

I’m gonna paste the source link down below. I sincerely encourage you all to visit further.

  1. A wildfire (AKA forest or peat fire) is an uncontrolled fire. Wildfires often occur in (duh) wild, unpopulated areas, but they can occur anywhere and harm homes, agriculture, humans, and animals in their path.[1]
  2. Firefighters also refer to these disasters as surface fires, dependent crown fires, spot fires, and ground fires. Want to make local firefighters happy — and even better at their jobs? Bake cookies to say thanks! Sign up for Cookies for Heroes.[2]
  3. 90% of all wildfires are started by humans.[3]
  4. “Crown fires” are spread by wind moving quickly across the tops of trees. “Running crown fires” are even more dangerous because they burn extremely hot, travel rapidly, and can change direction quickly.[4]
  5. One of the largest fires in recent history was in 1825 when a fire tore through Maine and New Brunswick, Canada, burning 3 million acres of forest.[5]
  6. Weather conditions can directly contribute to the occurrence of wildfires through lightning strikes or indirectly by an extended dry spell or drought.[6]
  7. Wildfires can be caused by an accumulation of dead matter (leaves, twigs, and trees) that can create enough heat in some instances to spontaneously combust and ignite the surrounding area.[7]
  8. Lightning strikes the earth over 100,000 times a day. 10 to 20% of these lightning strikes can cause fire.[8]
  9. Manmade combustions from arson, human carelessness, or lack of fire safety cause wildfire disasters every year.[9]
  10. An average of 1.2 million acres of US woodland burn every year.[10]
  11. A large wildfire — or conflagration — is capable of modifying the local weather conditions (AKA producing its own weather).[11]
  1. Wildfires Article, Forest Fires Information, Wildland Fires Facts — National Geographic.” National Geographic. http://environment.nationalgeographic.com/environment/natural-disasters/wildfires/ (accessed July 29, 2014). ↩︎
  2. “Wildfire Definitions.” NPS. http://www.nps.gov/olym/parkmgmt/upload/fire-wildfire-definitions-2.pdf (accessed August 1, 2014). ↩︎
  3. United States. National Park Service. “Wildland Fire: Wildfire Causes | U.S. National Park Service.” National Parks Service. http://www.nps.gov/fire/wildland-fire/learning-center/fire-in-depth/wildfire-causes.cfm (accessed July 28, 2014). ↩︎
  4. “Facts About Wind and Wildfires – weather.com.” Facts About Wind and Wildfires – weather.com. http://www.weather.com/outlook/wxready/articles/id-65 (accessed August 1, 2014). ↩︎
  5. United States. National Park Service. “Wildland Fire: Historic Fires | U.S. National Park Service.” National Parks Service. http://www.nps.gov/fire/wildland-fire/learning-center/fire-in-depth/historic-fires.cfm (accessed August 1, 2014). ↩︎
  6. United States. National Park Service. “Wildland Fire: Wildfire Causes | U.S. National Park Service.” National Parks Service. http://www.nps.gov/fire/wildland-fire/learning-center/fire-in-depth/wildfire-causes.cfm (accessed July 28, 2014). ↩︎
  7. “Science and Innovation – Forest Fires.” Science and Innovation – Forest Fires. http://www.borealforest.org/world/innova/forest_fire.htm (accessed August 1, 2014). ↩︎
  8. United States. National Park Service. “Wildland Fire: Wildfire Causes | U.S. National Park Service.” National Parks Service. http://www.nps.gov/fire/wildland-fire/learning-center/fire-in-depth/wildfire-causes.cfm (accessed July 28, 2014). ↩︎
  9. United States. National Park Service. “Wildland Fire: Wildfire Causes | U.S. National Park Service.” National Parks Service. http://www.nps.gov/fire/wildland-fire/learning-center/fire-in-depth/wildfire-causes.cfm (accessed July 31, 2014). ↩︎
  10. “Wildfires.” Ready Arkansas. http://ready.arkansas.gov/stayInformed/Pages/wildfires.aspx (accessed August 1, 2014). ↩︎
  11. United States. National Park Service. “Wildland Fire: Wildfire Causes | U.S. National Park Service.” National Parks Service. http://www.nps.gov/fire/wildland-fire/learning-center/fire-in-depth/wildfire-causes.cfm (accessed July 28, 2014). ↩︎

Sources: https://www.dosomething.org/us/facts/11-facts-about-wildfires#fnref11

With respect.

Valuable lessons: How Wildfires Work?

By Kevin Bonsor.

This is one of the content, I was looking for. Because if you started knowing things “How”. How things works. Your curiosity goes higher and higher.

To me personally, the most powerful questions are; how and why.

So, this article such an informative one, we all need to know and aware of it. I sincerely encourage you all to visit further with the link down below.

In just seconds, a spark or even the sun’s heat alone sets off an inferno. The wildfire quickly spreads, consuming the thick, dried-out vegetation and almost everything else in its path. What was once a forest be­comes a virtual powder keg of untapped fuel. In a seemingly instantaneous burst, the wildfire overtakes t­housa­nds of acres of surrounding land, threatening the homes and lives of many in the vicinity.

An average of 5 million acres burns every year in the United States, causing millions of dollars in damage­. Once a fire begins, it can spread at a rate of up to 14.29 miles per hour (23 kph), consuming everything in its path. As a fire spreads over brush and trees, it may take on a life of its own — finding ways to keep itself alive, even spawning smaller fires by throwing embers miles away. In this article, we will look at wildfires, exploring how they are born, live and die.

On a hot summer day, when drought conditions peak, something as small as a spark from a train car’s wheel striking the track can ignite a raging wildfire. Sometimes, fires occur naturally, ignited by heat from the sun or a lightning strike. However, the majority of wildfires are the result of human carelessness.

Common causes for wildfires include:

  • Arson
  • Campfires
  • Discarding lit cigarettes
  • Improperly burning debris
  • Playing with matches or fireworks
  • Prescribed fires

­Everything has a temperature at which it will burst into flames. This temperature is called a material’s flash point. Wood’s flash point is 572 degrees Fahre­nheit (300 C). When wood is heated to this temperature, it releases hydrocarbon gases that mix with oxygen in the air, combust and create fire.

There are three components needed for ignition and combustion to occur. A fire requires fuel ­to burn, air to supply oxygen, and a heat source to bring the fuel up to ignition temperature. Heat, oxygen and fuel form the fire triangle. Fire­fighters often talk about the fire triangle when they are trying to put out a blaze. The idea is that if they can take away any one of the pillars of the triangle, they can control and ultimately extinguish the fire.

­After combustion occurs and a fire begins to burn, there are several factors that determine how the fire spreads. These three factors include fuel, weather and topography. Depending on these factors, a fire can quickly fizzle or turn into a raging blaze that scorches thousands of acres.

Contents

  1. Fuel Loads
  2. Weather’s Role in Wildfires
  3. Fire on the Mountain
  4. Battling the Blaze

To read the full article, please click the link.

Source: https://science.howstuffworks.com/nature/natural-disasters/wildfire.htm

With respect.

Valuable lessons: Learning to learn from bushfires.

Finger pointing, blame and scapegoating is not the answer. Looking forward and understanding the risks is the right way.

ABOUT THE FACULTY:

Dr Graham Dwyer

Postdoctoral Research Fellow, Faculty of Business and Economics, University of Melbourne and the Bushfire Natural Hazards Cooperative Research Centre. Graham Dwyer’s doctoral research is understanding and learning how organisations make sense and learn from bushfires in Victoria since 1939. He is also affiliated to the Bushfire and Natural Hazards Cooperative Research Centre, Australia.

In October, a large bushfire created headlines in Australia proclaiming that fire seasons are starting earlier and earlier.

The experts have been telling us this for a decade. Professor Tim Flannery has said: Worryingly, since 2009 we have experienced more days of catastrophic fire danger, and this number will very likely increase in the future.”

What are we doing to prepare for this scenario?

In the last 10 years, one of the ways emergency services, governments and the public learn from bushfires has been through public inquiries such as Royal Commissions.

Emergency services also seek to learn continuously through independently commissioned reviews and operational debriefs. However, governments will likely establish a Royal Commission after a major bushfire.

Unfortunately, the last bushfire Royal Commission — after the 2009 Black Saturday fires — resulted in finger pointing, blame, vilification and scapegoating. We have already seen these characteristics at the start of this year’s fire season, which only keeps us looking backwards when we need to look forward.

We now know enough about bushfire behaviour and how our community and emergency services react that the money, time, energy and political attention devoted to Royal Commissions would be better spent planning for the future.

This is a key finding from my three years of doctoral research, including interviews with 63 Victorian emergency services experts, and an analysis of public inquiry reports, recommendations and comments from politicians and experts since 1939 — Victoria’s first bushfire Royal Commission.

Living on the edge of danger. The devastating Black Saturday bushfires happened within eyesight of Melbourne’s city centre. Picture: David Geraghty/Newspix

If we did look forward, we would accept what we already know — that Victoria is arguably the world’s most bushfire-prone area. We would accept that fire has been part of our landscape for as long as records have been kept. We would also accept the many studies which predict climate change mean more frequent, complex and devastating bushfires.

History has shown that significant and damaging fire events occur regularly in Victoria. Inevitably, we will see another Black Friday, Ash Wednesday and Black Saturday. These fire events can no longer be considered as once-in-a-generation events.

an ingrained belief

Today’s climate conditions increase the likelihood we will experience more major fire events, more regularly.

Yet there seems to be an ingrained belief that somehow we can prevent all bushfires or predict when and where they will happen. The way politicians and the public continue to react after a bushfire shows this false sense of security. Our historical sense of entitlement to own and develop land in fire-prone areas, and all of our technology today, has made that view more prevalent even in the face of ever-increasing bushfire risk.

As the recent Lancefield fire in Victoria reminded us, managing bushfire risk is a risky business. While the media reported the community’s inflammatory anger, saying that “Heads should roll for this”, we need to remember that Royal Commissions have repeatedly found that planned burning has an important role in reducing bushfire risk.

The Royal Commission hearings into the Black Saturday bushfires were streamed to onlookers outside the room. Picture: William West/AFP/Getty Images

Communities need to understand that planned burns can escape ­— particularly when fuel loads are high and weather conditions change. Unfair, insensitive and irresponsible comments by the community and commentators aimed at firefighters prevent us from understanding fire risk.

Such comments are also disrespectful towards those who are seeking to protect communities.

Risk of complacency

If we instead paid attention to what we have already learned, and woke up to the ecological reality of where we are living, we could do so much better. We could make Victoria a much safer place during the bushfire season.

Seventy-six years of learning has led to innovations. We have seen improvements in community bushfire education programs, advances in modelling fire behaviour, more sophisticated approaches to delivering bushfire warnings, an increased emphasis on planned burning to prepare for fire seasons and greater integration across emergency management agencies.

But each fire is unique and we run the risk of becoming complacent if we think previous public inquiries have delivered us to a position of safety.

Unfortunately, bushfire-prone communities continue to ignore the findings of bushfire royal commissions. A research project led by Professor Jim McLennan, from the Bushfire Natural Hazards Cooperative Research Centre, suggests people need to plan better for bushfire in their community.

Worringly, people are choosing to take a “wait and see” approach to what happens on high fire danger days. Professor McLennan has warned of the dangers of such an approach: “That it is opting for the possibility you will either have to fight for your life or you will be fleeing at the last minute.’’

A system that is more dynamic and realistic

If we had a more sophisticated way of learning and the resources to go with this, we could have a system that is more dynamic and realistic. To do that, we need to make a cognitive shift and move from the expectation that emergency services are completely responsible for preparing for fires. Instead, we need to move to a position where the community is an active participant in making decisions about their safety and property.

This includes community involvement in planning to prevent fires. It also means people living in high-risk areas need to work with emergency services on a year-round basis, rather than viewing bushfires as a summer phenomenon.

Graham Dwyer has spent three years researching the issue: Picture: Chris Hopkins

They need to work with their own communities to get to know and acknowledge the unique risks associated with their area, as every area is so different.

Based on existing knowledge, as Associate Professor Michael Buxton noted in Planning News: “Large numbers of existing dwellings in peri-urban areas around Melbourne (areas which are between the city and countryside) are potential death traps and probably could not be saved when confronted by a bushfire such as that of Black Saturday. Relatively small population increases in small towns, and widespread small lot rural dwelling construction, must inevitably place more people in harm’s way. We know the dangers.”

We run the risk of condemning some of these communities in growth area suburbs to a major and devastating fire unless we reflect on the specific risks they face. So much of Victoria’s land area continues to be developed and inhabited even when the bushfire risk is known to be high.

Professor Tim Flannery has spoken about the increased frequency and intensity of bushfires in fire-prone areas. Picture: http://www.climatecommission.gov.au

As Professor Flannery has noted: “Fire frequency and intensity … is predicted to increase in already fire-prone areas – areas in which a large proportion of the Australian community lives.”

By enabling these areas to be developed is knowingly putting communities in harm’s way of bushfire.

The biggest lesson from looking at 76 years of learning is that the complexities that surround modern-day bushfires are often difficult to explain and so we need to reinterpret accountability and reflect on bushfire risk as everyone’s responsibility.

We can’t keep building out into high bushfire risk areas.

We can’t expect new growth area suburbs not to be impacted by future fire events. We can’t remain in denial about the Victorian landscape. We can’t expect emergency services to be solely responsible for risks that they haven’t created. There is a bigger responsibility that needs to be shared — before the event — between communities, local and state governments and emergency services.

A house destroyed in the Black Saturday bushfires. Picture: Nick Carson via Wikipedia

The best form of protection is knowledge and acceptance of facts — even when those facts are challenging to how we usually think about land use, ownership and development.

The other key is the behaviour of those who are living and working in high-risk areas. We know this is the case, from decades of learning from fires, now we need to act on this by making the community more accountable.

People in these areas should have a fire plan ready long before the bushfire season. They should know what they’re going to do on a day of high fire danger. They should make decisions which minimise their risk.

The community can do so much to protect themselves and each other. There has been much sensitivity about talking about communities and their role in the future. But more attention has been focused instead on emergency services and the past. The most dangerous thing is to not have the debate about who is accountable and responsible because, ultimately, we all are.

Banner Image: Grassland in the path of a bushfire. Picture: Shutterstock

SOURCE: https://pursuit.unimelb.edu.au/articles/learning-to-learn-from-bushfires

With respect.

Valuable lessons: The Six Laws of PhD Failure.

  • 1st Law of PhD Failure – Choosing the wrong dissertation advise.
  • 2nd Law of PhD Failure – Expecting Dissertation Hand-holding from your Peers.
  • 3rd Law of PhD Failure – Choosing too Broad a Dissertation Topic.
  • 4th Law of PhD Failure – Procrastination.
  • 5th Law of PhD Failure – Ignoring your Dissertation Committee.
  • 6th Law of PhD Failure – Getting Romantically Involved with Faculty Members.

Regardless of the situation, you should simply keep in mind to be careful and keep your guard up. Finally, understand that if things go wrong in the relationship, it could become a serious impediment to success. Moreover, even with successful relationships, your academic success may be hindered by reports of gossip and peers linking any progress of your work to the relationship itself rather than to your own hard work. Don’t say I didn’t warn you!

To read the full article, please click the source link down below.

SOURCE: https://dissertationgenius.com/the-six-laws-of-phd-failure/

With respect.